Showing posts from December, 2020

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 25 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 ALLAH TA’ALA HAS MORE POWER OVER US   It is narrated in a Hadith that once the Holy Prophet  ﷺ   passed Hazrat Abu Masud on his way. He was being angry with his slave and telling him off. It looked as if he was close to hitting him. Upon seeing this the Holy Prophet  ﷺ said;   “Allah Ta’ala has more power over you than you have over this slave.”   What he meant was that if you treat him unduly harshly or if you hit him, Allah Ta’ala will take his revenge from you.


  -         “it must be a transaction of trade which requires exchange of properties. Therefore, the transactions of gambling, speculation and usury or the transactions of sale where the commodity does not exist are forbidden and are not valid in Shari'ah, because these transactions cannot be termed as trade, even though they are effected in the name of trade.” (Ma’ariful Quran)    The above statement means that in Shariah, for trade to be valid, some tangible/physical commodity or property must change hands, for example, we pay a certain amount of money and get a car or a specified piece of land in return. That is why gambling and interest (Riba, usury) are Haraam (unlawful) because in both of thse no tangible asset changes hands. In the former, we buy a ‘chance’ to earn more money, in the latter money is being used to buy money and time, not a physical commodity. More detail of this will follow later.


 The  words  “do not eat up each other's property by false means unless it be a trade with your mutual consent”   in verse 4:29 lay down  certain  conditions for the validity of a transaction through which the property of another person may lawfully be acquired.  - The word “ batil ” in the verse which is translated as “false means” , in the view of the majority of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) covers all other forms of taking and consuming other people’s wealth and property which are clearly impermissible and forbidden by Shariah such as theft, robbery, usurpation, breach of trust, bribery, interest, gambling, etc

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 24 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 YOUR EMPLOYEES ARE YOUR BROTHERS   In a Hadith the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  said;   “Your employees are your brothers. Allah Ta’ala has made them your subordinates. Give them to eat the same food that you eat yourselves, and give them to wear what you wear yourselves.”   These are the teachings of the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  about how to treat one’s subordinates. Some people start treating their employees and domestic servants like modern day slaves. It is  Haraam  under Shariah to treat them in an insulting and humiliating manner. The Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has said that they are your brothers, treat them like your brothers.


  Islam has placed so much emphasis on earning a Halal income that the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has said;   “There are many people who debase themselves in front of Allah, in that their hair are scattered, they beg and cry while praying, ‘O Allah! Please grant me this or that.’ They pray very meekly but their food is Haraam (unlawful), what they drink is Haraam, what they are wearing is Haraam, and their whole body has been raised on Haraam income. How can such a person’s prayer be accepted?”

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 23 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 YOU AND YOUR EMPLOYEE HAVE AN EQUAL STATUS   Suppose you go shopping and pay the shopkeeper for the items you have bought. You give him money, he gives you the items you have bought. Does it mean that because of this exchange of money and goods you have become superior to the shopkeeper and he has become inferior to you? No! Rather, you are equal parties in this transaction. In exactly the same way, you and your employee or servant are equal to each other in status, in that you are giving him money and he is providing you with some agreed upon services. Therefore, thinking that you are superior to him somehow, and looking down upon him, is absolutely forbidden under Shariah. 


  When I presented about   Ma’amlat   (financial transactions) in the workshop for social workers one of the participants gave this feedback, “I never knew that the term Halal applied to income as well. I always thought it applied only to meat.” For that reason, it is important to explain the terms   Halal   and   Haraam   a bit more.  In Shariah terminology, the term   Halal  means permissible or legal. In contrast,   Haraam   means impermissible or unlawful. Shariah has very clear rules about acquiring any wealth, property or asset. Any income or asset obtained following those rules is   Halal , any income or wealth obtained in contravention of those rules is   Haraam . Furthermore, a   Haraam   source of income turns   Halal   items bought with it into   Haraam   too. For example, if a person buys   Halal   meat using   Haraam   income, for that person eating that meat will become an act of consuming   Haraam .  

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 22 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 DO NOT CONSIDER YOUR EMPLOYEES INFERIOR TO YOU   Similarly, it is highly ignorant to consider one’s employees and domestic servants (where they exist) inferior to oneself. Even if you have employed someone as a domestic servant, you have entered into a contract with them. You have agreed to buy his services, and he has agreed to sell you his services. Therefore, both of you are a party to a contract


  III.  MA’AMLAT  (FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS)   “O’ you who believe, do not devour each other‘s property by false means, unless it is trade conducted with your mutual consent. (4:29)   “Do not eat up each other’s property by false means…” (2:188)


  Once a person attains the financial and physical ability to travel safely to Makkah Mukarramah, perform Hajj, and return, Hajj becomes  Fard  (compulsory) for them once in a lifetime. It is compulsory just like  Salah  is compulsory, just like fasting is compulsory, and just like  Zakat  is compulsory. Therefore, once one has the means available, they should try to perform it soon so that they are not leaving such an important obligation unfulfilled unduly. The Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has said words to the effect  t hat if a person has the means to perform Hajj and still does not do it, then it makes no difference whether he dies a Muslim or a non-Muslim.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 21 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 SUBORDINATES CANNOT ALWAYS DEMAND THEIR RIGHTS   By using this word, the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has cautioned people that be especially mindful of the rights of those people who are your subordinates, and who Allah Ta’ala has given you some sort of authority over. He emphasized it because people who are equal in status, do not hesitate in demanding their rights. But the person who is someone’s subordinate, cannot always demand his rights forcefully because of the status difference between him and his bosses. Sometimes he believes in his heart that he deserves more, but cannot demand so because of fear of consequences. Therefore, unless you have fear of Allah Ta’ala in your heart, and you are mindful that you have to fulfil his rights, then you will not be able to discharge his rights due towards you fully and completely.


  5.       HAJJ   “The first house set up for the people is surely the one in Makkah having blessings and guidance for all worlds…And as a right of Allah, it is obligatory on the people to perform Hajj of the House—whoever has the ability to manage (his) way to it…” (3:96-97)      “The Hajj is (to be performed in) the months that are well-known. So whoever undertakes Hajj in them, there should be no obscenity, no sin, no quarrel in the Hajj…” (2:197) 

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 20 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

  THE PHRASE   ما ملکت ایمانکم   IS INCLUSIVE OF ALL SUBORDINATES   Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi (may Allah Ta’ala bless him) used to say that the phrase  ما ملکت ایمانکم   refers not only to slaves, but also to all sorts of subordinates. So, it includes, subordinates at work, domestic servants, assistants, helpers, etc. If a person is a boss or a leader, then this phrase includes all those people he is responsible for or leads.


 I wasn’t planning to write this post as it gets into the realm of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) and I am no religious scholar. Also, nd there are different ways of calculating whether one needs to pay Zakat, all of which are correct as long as one follows an authentic scholar. But then I remembered a question by my eldest daughter some months ago. Some time ago we had opened savings accounts for our 3 children and started putting some money into them every month. Earlier this year my eldest daughter asked me, “Daddy, do I need to pay Zakat?” To my utmost embarrassment I had never thought about the question she asked me.   In Shariah, the bar for becoming  Sahib-e-Nisab  (a person whose assets beside items of regular use are above a certain threshold over which he needs to pay Zakat) is 7.5 tawla (a traditional weight measure) of gold or 52 tawla of silver. We calculated that as 1 tawla = 11.6 grams approx. and price of 1 gram of silver in NZ is $1.15, therefore,  Nisab  (threshold for

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 19 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 BE GOOD TO YOUR SLAVES   The third advice the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  gave at the time of his parting from this mortal world, was related to the ( Huqooq al-Ibad ) Rights of People. He said;   وما ملکت ایمانکم   The literal translation of this phrase is, “Be good to those things that are owned by your right hand”. In Arabic language this refers to a person’ slaves. This word has been used in the Noble Qur’an with reference to this meaning a number of times. In those days there used to be slaves who used to be owned by people. So, the literal interpretation of this phrase is that look after your slaves, be good to them, and fulfil their rights completely.


 Zakah literally means "to purify". In Islamic terminology it means giving in charity a portion of one's wealth subject to certain prescribed conditions. Beside Salah, it is the one act of worship the command for which appears most times in the Noble Qur’an. While this is not the place to go into its Fiqh details, there are very specific rules about who needs to pay Zakah, how much, and to whom it can be paid. Generally it ensures transfer of wealth from Muslims who are above a certain assets threshold, to Muslims who are below that assets threshold. In general, it has been stipulated in the Noble Quran;   “The Sadaqat (prescribed alms) are only for the poor, the needy, those employed to collect these, those whose hearts are to be won, in (freeing) slaves, in (releasing) those in debt, in the way of Allah and for a wayfarer - this being prescribed by Allah…” (9:60)    Even though the word ‘Sadaqah’ (charity) has been used in this verse, it refers to compulsory Sadaqah i.e

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 18 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

  So, it is an essential component of a complete  Taubah  (repentance) that one pays Zakat accurately after calculating it exactly. One can see that the Holy Prophet  ﷺ   attached so much importance to Salah and Zakat that even as he was parting from this mortal world he was advising Muslims to be mindful of these two rights of Allah. 


4. ZAKAT  “And be steadfast in Salah, and give Zakah…” (2:110) “…As for those who accumulate gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, give them the ‘good’ news of a painful punishment,  on the day it (the wealth) will be heated up in the fire of Jahannam, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded with it: ‘This is what you had accumulated for yourselves. So, taste what you have been accumulating’.” (9:34-35)

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 17 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 PAY ZAKAT ACCURATELY   The second commandment the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has mentioned in his last advice, is that of Zakat. The importance of Zakat in Islam is nearly equal to that of Salah. The commandment to pay Zakat comes in almost every instance where the commandment to pray Salah has been given.    “And be steadfast in Salah, and give Zakah…” (2:110)   For the  Taubah  (repentance) to be complete, it is essential that a person calculates every last cent of Zakat that has ever been due towards him, and pays it. In our society a lot of people are quite negligent about Zakat. Even those Muslims who understand the importance of Zakat and make an effort to estimate and pay it, do not always try to calculate it exactly how much Zakat is due towards them. Rather, they just pay it on the basis of an approximate estimate. This is not correct. A person should calculate exactly how much Zakat is due towards them, and then pay it.


  The second common mistake is that while most Muslims bring some positive change in their behaviour and generally make an effort to do more Ibadah during Ramadan, they often forget that the purpose of Ramadan is to develop   Taqwa (fear of Allah)   for the rest of the year too . Ramadan is like a refresher course. In this month we are supposed to reduce our engagement in our worldly affairs and spend as much time as we can in Allah’s worship, and to renew and re-affirm our relationship with Allah Ta’ala. But it doesn’t mean that this effort should end at the end of Ramadan. It means that we should keep trying to practice what we have learnt in Ramadan, for the rest of the year too.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 16 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 For example, a person takes all precautions so that he wakes up for  Fajr . He asks someone to wake him up, and also sets an alarm. However, he still doesn’t wake up in time, and by the time he wakes up the sun has risen. In that case, because he had taken all precautions to wake up for  Fajr , Insha’Allah he won’t be punished for missing  Fajr  deliberately. But what he should do is that as soon as he wakes up, he should do  Wudu  and pray  Fajr Salah , because for him that will be the time for  Fajr . He shouldn’t think that my  Salah  is  Qada  now anyway, Whether I pray it now or later, it will still be  Qada , so I will pray it later. Rather, he should pray  Fajr  as soon as he wakes up and shouldn’t delay it. If he does that, then Insha’Allah it will not be counted as a sin of delaying  Salah  deliberately. However, if he hadn’t taken any precautions to wake up on time, then it will be a sin.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 15 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 PRAY  FAJR SALAH  AS SOON AS YOU WAKE UP   In a Hadith the Holy Prophet  ﷺ   said that if a person keeps sleeping and the time of  Salah  passes while he is asleep, or if a person forgot praying  Salah  and remembered it when the time of  Salah  had passed,   then he should pray  Salah  as soon as he wakes up or as soon as he remembers, because that then is the time of  Salah  for him.   Those people who miss  Salah  on a regular basis should particularly remember this Hadith.


  The first is that wise elders have said that how ironic is it that Muslims give up in Ramadan what is   Halal   (permissible) during the rest of the year, like eating and drinking, but do not always give up what is   Haraam   (unlawful) the whole year round, like backbiting ( Gheebat ), hurting or harming other people. If we look into our own hearts, how many of us try to give up during Ramadan everything we do that is not permitted in Shariah? If we are engaged in questionable business practices, do we try to ensure that at least in Ramadan all the income we earn is   Halal ? If we usually get excessively angry with our family members, do we try to refrain from doing so in Ramadan? Do we try to control our tongue so that at least for one month we do not engage in any sins we habitually commit with it, like hurting other people, telling lies, humiliating people, backbiting, or breaching people’s trust? If not, we need to reflect on whether we are achieving the real purpose of Ramadan

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 14 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 RELAXATION IN PRAYING  QADA SALAH   Allah Ta'ala has given so much relaxation in praying  Qada Salah  that these can be prayed even at those times when it is not permissible to pray regular  Salah.  For example, it is not permissible to pray any  Nafl  (supererogatory) or  Sunnah Salah  from dawn to sunrise. Similarly, it is not permissible to pray any  Nafl  or  Sunnah Salah  after  Asr  prayers till sunset. However, it is permissible to pray  Qada Salah  during these times. Allah Ta’ala has given us this relaxation so that a Muslim can start praying  Qada Salah  as soon as he gets an intention of doing so, and there are no barriers.


  As the first verse quoted (2:183) tells us, Allah Ta’ala has stated the purpose of fasting as that a person develops   Taqwa . The word   Taqwa   is often translated as “fear of Allah”, but its true meaning refers to that fear of Allah which stops a person from committing an act which will displeases Allah Ta’ala. When a person is fasting, they do not eat or drink even in the privacy of their own homes or bedrooms even when no other human being is watching them regardless of how thirsty or hungry they feel, simply because they believe that even if no one else will know, Allah Ta’ala will know. To that extent, every person who fasts properly is a   Muttaqi   (a person with   Taqwa ). However, there are two common mistakes people make in relation to Ramadan.


Literally,  Sawm  means 'to abstain'. In Islamic law,  Sawm  means 'to abstain from eating, drinking and marital intimacy; with the conditions that one abstains continuously from dawn to sunset, and that there is an intention to fast'. “Intention to fast” means that a person has to form a deliberate intention ( Niyyah ) to keep a fast. Otherwise, if a person doesn’t eat or drink from dawn to sunset some day just because they were too busy to do so, it doesn’t constitute a  sawm .   Fasting is mandatory for all post-pubertal Muslims during the whole month of Ramadan, the 9 th  month of Islamic or Hijra calendar, though there are some exemptions like in case of illness or travel. As Islamic calendar is based on a lunar year which is slightly shorter than the solar year, Ramadan falls earlier by 10-12 days every solar year.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 13 (talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 VALUE HEALTH AND FREE TIME   If we believe that we have to pray these  Qada Salah  at some point in our life, then what are we waiting for? We are healthy now. Who knows we may be afflicted by some illness tomorrow which may make it very difficult for us to pray these  Qada Salah . We may have free time on our hands these days. Who knows we may not have this free time tomorrow. Today Allah Ta’ala has granted us the motivation to pray these  Qada Salah . This motivation may not last till tomorrow. Therefore, if we have developed the motivation to pray these  Qada Salah  today, we should not procrastinate and should start praying them today.


  SAWM  (FASTING)   “O you who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as they were enjoined upon those before you, so that you may be God-fearing” (2:183)   “The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Qur‘an was revealed as guidance for mankind, and as clear signs that show the right way and distinguish between right and wrong. So those of you who witness the month must fast in it. But the one who is sick, or is on a journey (should fast) as much from other days (as he missed). Allah intends (to provide) ease for you and does not intend (to create) hardship for you…” (2:185)

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 12 (Talk by Mufti Taqi Usmani DB)

 DO NOT PROCRASTINATE   If you really intend to do something, start doing it today. But if you keep postponing it, it will become more and more difficult for you with time. That is why the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  has said in a hadith;   “When it is morning time, do not wait for the evening, and when it is evening, do not wait for the morning. Consider yourself to be one of those people who are in their graves.”   It means that keep thinking that you may be going to your grave any moment, therefore, do not postpone things you need to do, for tomorrow.


  Once one of my kids asked me that if I knew I was about to die and could give them only advice, what would that advice be? I reflected a lot and decided that my one dying advice would be to never let go of   Salah . It is because wise elders have said that   Salah   performs the same function for a Muslim that an anchor performs for a horse that is tied to one. As long as the anchor is planted firmly and the horse remains tied to it, the horse can’t stray too far away from it. Similarly, as long as a Muslim keeps praying  Salah  five times a day, he/she doesn’t stray too far from   Deen . They may make many mistakes, commit many sins, but as long as their relationship with Allah Ta’ala is being renewed five times a day, Insha’Allah Ta’ala they will never go too far away from him.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 11

 START PRAYING  QADA   SALAH  FROM TODAY   Our jobs, our businesses, our lives, will keep going on, but one of the most important things for us to do today is to try to estimate how many  Qada  (missed)  Salah  are due towards him. If we have any  Qada Salah  due, then we should start praying them today, and should not wait for tomorrow. Satan has unique ways of deceiving people. So, it won’t try to convince a Muslim to give up praying  Salah , or try to convince him that it is not important. It puts thoughts into a Muslim’s mind that “ Salah  is very important but I will start praying it at a time when I know I will keep praying it regularly from then on. I don’t feel I am ready for that today, so what is the point of praying just one  Salah  or praying it for just one day. I will start from tomorrow.” Or that, “if I start praying  Salah  and then do not continue, then it will be an even greater sin. So, I won’t start today. I have to do such and such things, and once I have done thos


  There is a long hadith in which Hazrat Ali (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has narrated the last advices of the Holy Prophet  ﷺ . Hazrat Ali RAA said, ‘His revered head was in my arms.  The words he was saying were, “Be mindful of  Salah , be mindful of  Zakat , be good to the slaves you own, and be steadfast to the witness of “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad ( ﷺ ) is His subject and Messenger.” Allah Ta’ala will declare  Jahannam  (Hell)  Haraam  for whoever remains steadfast to this testament.’ These were the advices the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  gave in his last moments of life.

THE LAST ADVICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET (peace be upon him): 10

  That is why everyone should make a will as soon as possible that if he dies before he is able to pray all the   Qada Salah due towards him, then the   Fidyah   (compensation) for the remaining   Qada Salah   should be paid from his inheritance. And he should also start praying the   Qada Salah   one by one from today. If a person starts doing these two things, then if he dies before he can pray all his   Qada Salah ,   Insha’Allah   he will be forgiven. But if a person doesn’t do these two things, neither he starts praying the   Qada Salah , nor does he make a will for his remaining   Qada Salah   in case of his death, then he is being neglectful of one of the greatest   Ibadah .


 MAKING A WILL FOR  FIDYAH  (COMPENSATION) FOR  QADA   SALAH   The person should also write a will that he is starting to pray  Qada-e-Umri  from that date, and will be praying one  Qada (missed)  Salah  with every  Fard  (compulsory)  Salah , and that he has three years of  Qada Salah  due towards him. However, if he dies before praying all the  Qada Sal ah, then the  Fidyah  (compensation money) should be paid to needy people from his estate.    If a person does not leave such a will, then it is not  Wajib  (necessary) for his inheritors to pay that  Fidyah . In Shariah, a person has full disposing authority over his assets only in his life, and before any terminal illness starts. If someone develops a terminal illness then they can dispose of only up to a third of their assets. It is not permissible for them to dispose of more than a third of their assets. So, if a person does not make a will for paying  Fidyah  while still alive and not suffering from a terminal illness, against hi


  “The first of his deeds for which a man will be made to account for on the day of resurrection will be Salah. If that is deemed satisfactory, all his deeds will be deemed satisfactory. If that is deemed unsatisfactory, all his deeds will be deemed unsatisfactory.” (Hadith-e-Nabvi)   “Allah Ta’ala has made Salah Fard (compulsory) five times a day. Whoever performs wudu (ablution) properly, prays them at the right times, performs Ruku’ and Sajdah as they are supposed to be performed, and prays them with humbleness of heart, then Allah Ta’ala has vowed to forgive such a person. But there is no promise from Allah Ta’ala for a person who doesn’t perform these properly. If He wills, He will forgive that person, and if He wills, He may punish Him.” (Hadith-e-Nabvi)


  HOW TO PRAY  QADA-E-UMRI  ( قضائے عمری )   The proper way of performing  Qada-e-Umri  is to start praying a  Qada  prayer with every  Fard  (compulsory) prayer, for example,  Fajr  with  Fajr ,  Zuhur  with  Zuhur , and  Asr  with  Asr . The way of praying an individual  Qada  prayer to make a  Niyyah  (intention) before praying it that, for example, I am praying the first  Fajr Qada   Salah  that is due towards me, and the same with all other prayers. And then keep doing it every day.


  1.       SALAH   “ And be steadfast in Salah, and pay Zakah, and bow down with those who bow… (2:43)   “ And seek help through patience and Salah. It is indeed exacting, but not for those who are humble in their hearts… ” (2:45)   "The Salah restrains one from indecency and evil." (29:46) 


  Following up on a conversation with some very good friends yesterday, for parents who want their children to adopt their values; - Do not try to 'teach' your children your values, 'show' them your values by practicing them in your life. - Do not tell them what their values should be, give them the tools to explore and learn, and develop their own values. It may be anxiety provoking for some parents to give their children freedom to choose their own values, but if you do it the right way you will be surprised how closely the values they eventually develop will resemble your own values. - Relationship, relationship, relationship; the closer, more loving, more trusting, more open, your relationship is with your children, the more likely they are to grow up being you.


  SHAHADAH  (TESTIMONY, BEARING WITNESS)   “Allah bears witness that there is no god but He…” (3:18)   “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah…” (48:29)    The first pillar of Islam is saying the  Shahadah  (literal meaning: testimony or bearing witness) which is a combination of the two verses of the Holy Qur’an narrated above, and which can be translated as;   “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”   When a person wants to become a Muslim, they do so by reciting the  Shahadah . It primarily affirms two principles. The first is the principle of monotheism. It means that Muslims believe that there is only one God, and no other deity shares either His eternal existence or His omnipotent powers. The second principle is that Allah’s  Deen  (religion) has come to us through His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad  ﷺ . As has been mentioned above, the Noble Qur’an lays out principles and framework, but how those principles need to


 SPECIFIC  TAUBAH  (REPENTANCE)   Once a person has done general  Taubah , the next step is to do specific  Taubah . Specific  Taubah  means that they look at their entire past life critically as to what wrongs they have committed in that life. Then they should reflect on which of these wrongs they can atone for now. For example, they should make a list of all the people they have hurt in their past life. Then they should try to ask for forgiveness from all those people who are still alive and they can contact, and pray for forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala in favour of all those people who have passed away or they are unable to contact any more.   In terms of  Salah , a person needs to estimate how many  Salah,  if any, they have not prayed (done  Qada ) since  Salah became compulsory for them. That time starts from the age when an individual attains puberty. If they do not remember the exact age, then they should estimate it from the age of 14 years as that is the age when children usual


 GENERAL  TAUBAH  (REPENTANCE)   It is for the reason above it has been the practice of our wise elders that whenever someone came to them seeking to establish  Islahi Ta’alluq  (mentoring relationship for self-improvement), the first teaching they received was in performing  Taubah  (repentance) from previous sins. There is a general or in principle  Taubah,  and a specific or detailed  Taubah . For general or in principle  Taubah,  a person should pray two  raka’t  with the intention of  Salah  of repentance ( صلوٰة التوبہ ), and then with a humble heart should pray to Allah Ta’ala that “O’ Allah! I beg You for forgiveness for all the sins I have committed in my previous life. Please forgive me for all the sins I have committed, major or minor. Please forgive me for all the  Faraid  (compulsory commandments) and  Wajibat  (necessary commandments) that I have neglected or not performed. O’ Allah! Please forgive me and accept my  Taubah .” This is general or in principle  Taubah .


 WE ALL BE ASKED FIRST ABOUT  SALAH  IN THE HEREAFTER The Holy Qur’an and Hadith are full of commandments about praying  Salah . The commandment to establish  Salah comes more than 60 times in the Holy Qur’an. It has been narrated in a Hadith that in the  Aakhirah  (Hereafter) the first question we will be asked, will be about  Salah . We will be held accountable for how many  Salah  we prayed, how many we have missed, and how many we prayed after their time had passed. When a person starts preparing for  Aakhirah  the first thing they need to do is to take account of their  Salah , as to how many they have not prayed since it became incumbent upon them after attaining puberty.


  II.  IBADAH  (ACTS OF WORSHIP) The second facet of commandments of Islam is that of  Ibadah  (acts of worship). There are five primary compulsory acts of worship which are also known as the five pillars of Islam.   These are;   SHAHADAH SALAH SAWM  (FASTING) ZAKAT  (COMPULSORY CHARITY)  HAJJ  (PILGRIMAGE TO MAKKAH) 


 IMPORTANCE OF  SALAH  AND RIGHTS OF ONE’S SUBORDINATES This Hadith tells us that among all the commandments and teachings of  Deen  the one among  Huqooq Allah  (rights of Allah) the Holy  ﷺ   Prophet placed the greatest emphasis on was  Salah . In another narration, the words “ Salah, Zakah , and rights of subordinates” have been mentioned. This tells us that among all the Rights of Allah the Holy Prophet  ﷺ placed the greatest emphasis on two sorts of rights, one physical and one financial, the physical one being  Salah , and the financial one being  Zakat . And among the Rights of People ( Huqooq al-Ibad ) he placed the greatest emphasis on rights of one’s slaves, servants and subordinates.    The Holy Prophet  ﷺ  was worried whether his  Ummah  will falter in following these commandments of Shariah after him, and that being neglectful of these commandments will lead to  Jahannam  and wrath of Allah Ta’alah, and that is why he emphasized about following these specific commandments


 THE ESSENCE OF ENTIRE  DEEN The real purpose of quoting this Hadith is those advices the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  gave at such a crucial time and what he emphasized. It seems like these advices are the essence of the commandments of  Deen  (religion) that the holy Prophet  ﷺ  preached his entire life. These are the summary of entire  Deen .    There is another Hadith which has been narrated by Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) in which he said that during the last moments of the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  when the volume of his voice had become really low, when I put my ear to his mouth these were the words he kept saying till the very last moment;   “Be vigilant about Salah and be vigilant about your subordinates.”


  This is the reason why belief in   Aakhirah   (Hereafter) is such a core and powerful belief. This is the belief which keeps a person honest in the dark of night, and stops them from committing a crime when no one else is watching, because they know that even when no one else is watching, Allah Ta’ala is watching, and even if they get away without adverse consequences in this world, they will be held accountable for every deed and word they commit and utter in this temporary life, in the next one which will be forever.


  Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) says that at that time the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  was so unwell that I feared that if I went to get something to write on, he may pass away in my absence. That is why I told him that whatever you tell me, I will remember it and write it down later. Hazrat Ali RAA says that his revered head was in my arms. The words he was saying were, “Be mindful of  Salah , be mindful of  Zakat , look after the slaves you own, and be steadfast to the witness of “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad ( ﷺ ) is His subject and Messenger.” Allah Ta’ala will declare  Jahannam (Hell)  Haraam  for whoever remains steadfast to this testament.” These were the advices the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  gave in his last moments of life. Translation of a talk by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani DB


 Once Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was walking through the city at night. He heard an older and a younger woman (her daughter) talking. The older woman was telling the younger woman to add some water to the milk of their goat so that they could get more money for it. The younger woman replied, “But mother, Caliph Umar has issued orders not to add water to milk.” The older woman said, “But Umar is not watching us right now.” The younger woman replied, “Mother, Caliph Umar may not be watching us but Allah Ta’ala is surely watching us right now.” Hazrat Umar RAA found that girl the next day and got his son married to her and Hazrat Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (may Allah bless him), who is known as the fifth rightly guided Caliph, was born from that marriage.


  This Hadith has been narrated by Hazrat Ali (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him). In this narration he has described the events around the time of the Holy Prophet’s  ﷺ   last few days before he passed away from this mortal world. Hazrat Ali RAA has narrated that on the last day when the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  fell really unwell, he said to Hazrat Ali RAA, “Ali, bring a tray ( تھال ) in which I write that advice after which my  Ummah  (community) doesn’t go astray.” In those days paper wasn’t very common. Sometimes people wrote on leather, on leaves of a tree, on bones, and sometimes on clay pans. 


  AAKHIRAH  (THE HEREAFTER) Allah Ta’ala says in the Noble Qur’an;   “And (visualize) the Day when We will make mountains move, and you will see the earth fully exposed, and We shall gather them together, so as not to leave a single one of them.  And they shall be presented lined-up before your Lord. (It will be said to them,) “Lo! You have come to Us just as We had created you for the first time, while you claimed that We would not make any appointed time for you”. And the book (of deeds) will be placed (before them), then you will see the guilty people scared of its contents and saying, “Woe to us! What a book is this! It has missed nothing, minor or major, but has taken it into account”. Thus, they will find whatever they did present before them, and your Lord will not wrong anyone.” (18:47-49)  AND   “The blind are not equal with the seeing, nor the wrong-doers with those who believe and do good deeds. Yet you seldom reflect. The hour of retribution is sure to come, no doubt about


 FURTHER ATTRIBUTES IN TORAH It was further said that Allah Ta'ala will not recall the Holy Prophet  ﷺ  to Himself until he has straightened this misguided nation. The phrase ‘misguided nation’ referred to the idol worshippers of Arabia, who were not just associators, but they also believed that they were better than all other nations. This came true when in 23 years Allah Ta’ala created the rule of “there is no god but Allah’ in the entire Arabian peninsula through the Holy Prophet  ﷺ .   It was further said that through this  Kalima  of  Tauheed  he will open their unseeing eyes and open their hearts. These words have appeared in Torah about the attributes of the Holy Prophet  ﷺ . May Allah Ta’ ala grant us the motivation to develop these attributes in ourselves too. Aameen    و آخر دعوانا ان الحمد الّٰلہ رب العٰلمین
  It is so fascinating to learn how children's thought processes develop. Recently we have been clearing our house of everything we don't need, because of an impending move. My middle daughter was given the task of asking her friend if she wanted my eldest daughter's year 12 accounting book. Her friend said yes, and asked how much she would need to pay. In my daughter's own words, as she had not asked us that question, she thought, "Hmm, what would daddy do? Daddy would never take any money from a friend for an old book." She then told her friend she didn't need to pay anything. It is scary how much we influence our children's behaviour without even knowing or thinking about it.